福克蘭群島

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福克蘭群島
徽章
座右銘:“慾望的權利”
國歌: “天佑女王    (官方)
福克蘭群島的歌 [一]
福克蘭群島的英國(白色,頂部中心)的位置。
福克蘭群島的英國 (白色,頂部中心)的位置。
資本
和最大城市。
斯坦利
51°42'S 57°51'W / 51.7°S 57.85°W / -51.7,-57.85
官方語言 英語
族群[1] )
Demonym 福克蘭島民
政府 英國海外領地 [J]。
- 君主 伊麗莎白二世
- 管理者 奈傑爾·海伍德 [2]
- 行政長官 基思·帕吉特 [3]
- 負責部長( 英國 雨果太古 MP
立法機關 議會
編制
- 英國重新建立規則 1833
- 英國直轄殖民地 1841
- 英國屬土 1981 [D]
- 英國海外領土 2002年
- 現行“憲法” 2009
區域
- 12173公里2( 第162
4,700平方mi
- 水分(%) 0
人口
- 2012年估計 2841 [4] ( 第二百二十零
- 密度 0.26/km 2( 第241號
0.65/sq英里
國內生產總值PPP 2005年的估計
- 7500萬美元( 第223次
- 人均 55400美元[5] ( 7日
貨幣 [E] FKP 福克蘭群島磅FKP
時區 FKT 並[f] UTC -4)
- 夏天( DST FKSTUTC -3)
驅動器上的離開
調用代碼 500
ISO 3166代碼 FK
互聯網頂級域名 。FK
一。 ^ 歌在福克蘭群島島嶼的國歌在體育賽事中使用。
二。 ^大部分是英國血統。
C。 ^ 議會 民主的 君主立憲制下的依賴
四。 ^打斷了阿根廷軍政府於1982年。
E。 ^固定英鎊(GBP) 。
F。 ^福克蘭群島一直在FKST自2010年9月。 [6]

福克蘭群島/ K Lənð /或, / fɔːL K升 ənð / 西班牙語馬爾維納斯群島 )是一個群島,位於南大西洋巴塔哥尼亞大陸架上。主要的島嶼約310英里(500公里)的巴塔哥尼亞海岸以東,北緯約52°S.包括東福克蘭群島,它有一個面積為4700平方英里(12,173平方公里) , 西福克蘭和776個較小的島嶼。島嶼, 英國海外領地 ,保證良好的政府與英國和承擔責任為自己的國防和外交事務中享有很大程度的內部自治 。資本和唯一的城市是赤柱東福克蘭島。

對福克蘭群島的原始歐洲人發現和隨後的殖民存在爭議。在不同的時期有過法國,英國,西班牙,阿根廷的定居點。英國重新建立其在1833年的規則 ,儘管這些島嶼由阿根廷繼續聲稱 。 1982年,阿根廷入侵的島嶼 ,長達2個月未申報的馬島戰爭導致兩國之間的所有阿根廷軍隊的投降和返回英國管治的島嶼。

人口估計在2,841,主要包括本地福克蘭群島居民 ,大多數是英國人的後裔。其他種族包括法國, 直布羅陀 ,和斯堪的納維亞 。來自美國,英國, 聖赫勒拿島智利移民扭轉了前人口下降。主要的官方語言是英語。根據1983年英國國籍法 ,福克蘭群島,在法律上是英國公民

這些島嶼位於邊界上的亞北極海洋氣候溫帶海洋性氣候區,達到2,300英尺(700米)的山脈有兩個主要島嶼。這些島嶼是到大型鳥類種群,雖然不再品種的主要島嶼,由於引進品種。主要經濟活動,包括釣魚旅遊 ,羊養殖與高品質的羊毛出口的重點,和石油勘探。石油勘探,由福克蘭群島政府授權的海事糾紛與阿根廷的結果,仍然是有爭議的。

內容

[ 編輯 ] 詞源

福克蘭群島的英文名稱由“福克蘭聲音”,渠道之間的兩個主要島嶼,這是安東尼·卡里,第5福克蘭子爵 ,於1690年降落在島上的船長約翰·斯特朗 ,依次命名為[7的西班牙名字, 拉斯維加斯(馬爾)馬爾維納斯群島 ,來自法國名[8] [9] 爾斯Malouines,名叫路易斯·安東尼布幹維爾在1764年後的第一個已知的定居者,水手和漁民的布雷頓港的在法國聖馬洛[9] ISO指定福克蘭群島(馬爾維納斯群島)和它的ISO國家代碼是FK。 [10]

作為主權爭端的結果,許多西班牙名稱的使用被認為是在福克蘭群島的攻勢,尤其是那些與1982年入侵[11]爵士傑里米·摩爾將在投降文件中不允許使用的馬爾維納斯群島 ,駁回它作為一個宣傳詞。 [12]

[ 編輯 ] 歷史

[ 編輯 ] 在馬島戰爭

存在爭議,誰第一個發現了福克蘭群島,與同類競爭的16世紀,葡萄牙,西班牙和英國聲稱。 [13] [14]雖然從巴塔哥尼亞 印第安人參觀了福克蘭群島, [15]的島嶼無人居住時發現歐洲人。 [16]通常被認為是在1600年,荷蘭探險家瑟博德的威爾特誰命名的群島瑟博德群島,進入19世紀的荷蘭地圖的名稱,他們承擔的第一個可靠的瞄準。 [17]

1690年,船長約翰·斯特朗連接通往波多黎各德塞亞多的 福利 ,當然趕走,並達到了福克蘭群島,而不是,大膽灣登陸。兩個主要島嶼之間航行,他呼籲通過的“福克蘭頻道”(現在福克蘭聲音 ),安東尼·卡里後,第5福克蘭子爵,他的金鐘專員資助的探險隊。島群將其英文名稱由本體內的水分。 [18]

1764年, 法國航海家和軍事指揮官路易斯安東尼布幹維爾創辦了第一個定居點大學伯克利分校的聲音,在今天的路易港東福克蘭島[19]在1765年,英國船長約翰·拜倫探討,並聲稱桑德斯西福克蘭 ,在那裡他命名的海港口岸埃格蒙特和結算,建於1766年。 [20]不知道的法國存在,拜倫稱英王喬治三世的島群。西班牙在1767年收購了法國的殖民地,並把它放在布宜諾斯艾利斯殖民管治下的州長下屬。 1770年,西班牙的攻擊埃格蒙特港和驅逐了英國的存在, 使兩國戰爭的邊緣 。戰爭是可以避免的和平條約和英國回港埃格蒙特。 [21]

在1774年, 美國革命戰爭導致的經濟壓力迫使英國退出從許多海外住區。 [21] [22]後撤離,英國左翼主張英國繼續要求背後的牌匾 。西班牙保持它的州長,直到1806年,他的離去,留下西班牙語索賠主張的牌匾。剩餘的定居者於1811年被撤銷。 [21]

1820年,風暴所造成的損害,迫使的 Heroína的島嶼暫避。 [23]她的隊長大衛·朱伊特提高的標誌的聯合省河床 ,閱讀公告,聲稱這些島嶼。 [23]這成為公共知識布宜諾斯艾利斯近一年後在薩利姆公報宣布後發表。 [23]經過多次的失敗, 路易斯·韋爾內建立了一個定居點授權布宜諾斯艾利斯共和國於1828年從英國[24]在1829年後,要求布宜諾斯艾利斯的幫助,相反,他宣稱這些島嶼的軍事和民防司令。 [24]此外,韋爾內要求英國以保護他的解決,如果他們回來。 [25]

查看路易港(Port Louis),大概是1838或1839。 [26]

捕魚和狩獵權糾紛,在一次襲擊美國軍艦USS 列剋星敦在1831年。 [27] [28] 剋星敦的日誌報告只銷毀武器和粉店,但韋爾內提出索賠,賠償美國政府指出,解決被摧毀。 [27] (補償被拒絕的克利夫蘭總統,美國政府在1885年。) 列剋星敦的船長宣布島“所有政府”,七名高級會員的結算涉嫌盜版的[29],並採取蒙得維的亞[28]在那裡他們被釋放沒有負責代羅傑斯的訂單。 [30]

在1832年11月,阿根廷派出指揮官Mestivier發現了一個刑事和解作為一項臨時指揮官,但四天後,他在兵變中喪生。 [31]以下的1月,英軍退回,並要求阿根廷駐軍休假。唐·皮內多,ARA的薩蘭迪和高級管理人員目前的隊長,抗議,但最終遵守。韋爾內的沉降仍在繼續,愛爾蘭人 威廉·迪克森負責提高英國國旗過往船隻。 [32] [33] [34] 馬修·韋爾內的副手, 布里斯班 ,返回,並鼓勵企業繼續由英國。該和解協議一直持續到1833年,當所謂的高卓人謀殺的領導人被殺害。隨後,從1834年的島嶼所支配,英國的海軍基地直到1840年,當英國政府決定建立一個永久殖民地。 [35]

在1914年的福克蘭群島戰役的海軍對抗。繪畫由威廉萊昂內爾·威利

在赤柱建造一個新的港口, [36]和島嶼成為戰略合恩角(Cape Horn)左右的導航點。一個第一次世界大戰海戰, 福克蘭群島戰役 ,發生在1914年12月,在更小的德意志帝國亞洲艦隊與英國的勝利。 [37]第二次世界大戰期間 ,斯坦利擔任皇家海軍站和維修船舶參加了1939年的河床之戰 [38] 。

對這些島嶼的主權問題再次成為在下半年的20世紀,阿根廷認為,建立聯合國為契機,追究其提出的索賠要求。發生在20世紀60年代英國和阿根廷的外國使團之間的會談,但未能得出任何有意義的結論。在所有談判中的一個主要癥結是,這些島嶼的居民傾向於繼續留在英國的領土。 [39]

這些談判的一個結果是島上的第一個空中鏈路的建立。在1971年,阿根廷國家航空公司LADE的開始里瓦達維亞海軍準將城 ,赤柱之間的服務。一個臨時的帶其次是建設一個永久機場和航班之間士丹利和里瓦達維亞海軍準將城,一直持續到1982年。 [40] [41] [42]進一步的協議給了阿根廷YPF ,國家石油和天然氣公司,壟斷了供應島上的能源需求。 [43] 的時報“ ,在其訃告的雷克斯·亨特的狀態,它被普遍接受的外國辦公室 ,當亨特被任命州長,他的簡短的一部分是“以軟化了島上的1800居民到,英國的主權不能被作為永久“的理念。在他首次派遣到外交部,他寫道:“有沒有辦法,我們將說服這些島民,他們將更好地成為阿根廷的一部分”。 [44]

[ 編輯 ] 馬島戰爭及其後果

英國傘兵守衛阿根廷戰俘

1982年4月2日,阿根廷入侵福克蘭群島其他英國在南大西洋地區 。利用的長期感情的阿根廷人對這些島嶼,該國執政的軍事緬甸軍政府試圖以轉移公眾的注意力從阿根廷的不佳經濟表現和發展內部的反對, [45]然而,英國的削減,軍事能力在南大西洋也鼓勵的侵襲。 [46] [47] [48]

1982年4月3日, 聯合國安理會頒布了第502號決議 ,呼籲阿根廷撤軍的島嶼和雙方尋求通過外交途徑解決。 [49]國際反應範圍在大多數拉美國家支持阿根廷,反對聯邦和大多數西歐國家 。一個分裂的美國政府,最初公開中性,最後在英國的支持。 [50] [51]

英國派出遠征軍奪回島嶼。經過短暫但激烈的海軍和空軍的戰役中,英軍於5月21日降落在聖卡洛斯水和土地競選其次導致向英國走的是高的地面周圍士丹利6月11日。 1982年6月14日,阿根廷軍隊投降。戰爭導致255英國和阿根廷649名士兵,水手和飛行員,以及3個民用福克蘭群島的死亡。 [52]

戰爭結束後,英國在這些島嶼上,增加了他們的軍事存在, 英國皇家空軍的Mount Pleasant的建設,增加駐軍。 [53]雖然英國和阿根廷在1990年恢復了外交關係,沒有進一步的談判主權的地方。 [54 ]它被認為是19,000阿根廷地雷 [55] [56]在一個地區13平方公里仍然從1982年的戰爭中分散在一些雷區周圍士丹利,霍華德港,福斯灣,鵝綠色。 [57]信息從爆炸品處理中心士丹利操作。 [57]在2009年,開始掃雷在衝浪灣,和間隙發生工兵山,鵝綠色和福斯灣。進一步的清理工作是在2011年開始。 [58]

[ 編輯 ] 主權爭端

阿根廷 - 巴西邊境的一個標誌,翻譯成英文,宣稱:“馬爾維納斯群島是阿根廷的”。存在這樣整個阿根廷的標誌。

英國和阿根廷的福克蘭群島都聲稱負責。自1833年以來(除了1982年 ),島上居民有一個“正確的自決權,包括他們繼續留在英國,如果這是他們的願望。” [59]阿根廷斷定,它獲得了英國基地的島嶼問題上的立場連續給藥來自西班牙的福克蘭群島後,從它在1816年成為獨立的 ,而且在英國非法佔領他們於1833年。 [60]

本糾紛始於1945年,形成後不久,聯合國,阿根廷重申其福克蘭群島及其依賴關係 (主要是南喬治亞島和南桑威奇群島)的主權要求。 [61] 1964年,聯合國通過了一項決議,呼籲英國和阿根廷的主權爭端進行談判。 [62]

後來,10年來,有意改善關係轉移福克蘭群島的規定,以保護島上居民的生活方式與南美洲的英國秘密討論的主題與阿根廷。然而,當這個消息被公開,福克蘭群島居民提出抗議的計劃。因此,英國重點增加了對島民的自決權 ;阿根廷不同意,和有效的談判仍處於僵持階段。 [63] [64]隨後的談判,直到1981年這兩個國家之間發生,但未能達成一個主權結論[65] 。

重新建立外交關係,英國和阿根廷在馬島戰爭爆發於1982年被切斷,於1990年。 [54]在2007年,阿根廷重申其對福克蘭群島的要求,要求英國恢復對國家主權的談判。 [66]在2009年,英國首相戈登·布朗會見了阿根廷總統克里斯蒂娜·費爾南德斯·德基什內爾 ,並宣布在未來福克蘭群島的主權,就沒有談判。 [67]據英國福克蘭群島而言,沒有任何懸而未決的問題,以解決存在。 [68] [69] [70]

現代福克蘭群島繼續拒絕阿根廷的主權要求。 2010年,馬島,從英國報紙“每日電訊報”的 記者湯姆·倫納德寫道:“3000強的社會已經是自豪的英國[...]。年輕的島民可能無法分享老一輩的回憶,但很明顯,沒有愛情失去其中阿根廷人。“ [68] 2012年6月12日,福克蘭群島宣布,將在其政治地位在2013年初舉行全民公決 ,發送“一個堅定的信息,對阿根廷的島民想繼續留在英國的目標” [71]

當代阿根廷的政策也維持其立場,即現代福克蘭群島沒有自決權。阿根廷聲稱,在1833年,英國驅逐阿根廷當局和定居者從馬島的威脅“更大的力量”和英國之後禁止阿根廷人從安置的島嶼。 [60] [72]阿根廷對福克蘭群島重申其立場,在2012年,在聯合國非殖民化委員會會議上,當其代表拒絕接受兩國政府之間的直接談判提供了開放的信從福克蘭群島。阿根廷只承認英國政府在談判中作為一個合法的合作夥伴。 [73] [74]

[ 編輯 ] 政治和政府

該群島是英國的海外領土 ,在2009年的“憲法” ,享有很大程度的內部自治,保證良好的政府與英國和承擔責任為國防和外交事務。 [75] [76]

行政機關被賦予的女王 ,由總督代表她行使。總督還負責管理南喬治亞島和南桑威奇群島 ,這些島嶼沒有本地居民。州長作用於行政會議的意見,由他自己擔任董事長, 行政總裁財務總監和3名選舉產生的立法議會成員。 [76] 奈傑爾·海伍德現任總督上任於2010年10月。 [2]

包括行政總裁,財務總監及8名成員,其中5名來自士丹利和三個普選產生 ,任期四年當選為立法會[76]有沒有政黨,也沒有正式的反對。主持的音箱[77] - 2012年基思都有少量的[78]上次選舉中 ,根據2009年憲法,2009年11月5日(星期四)。 [79]

司法管理的居民的資深裁判官,終審法院首席法官和非居民的島嶼每年至少 ​​一次訪問的島嶼。高級裁判官處理小的刑事案件,民事,商事,海事和家庭情況,也是島上的死因。終審法院首席法官處理嚴重的刑事案件和審理上訴。 [80]憲法結合司法機關審理案件時,相關的人權,遵守歐洲人權法院的決定。 [76]

在福克蘭群島的表達自由的保障是由憲法,英國的上級法院明確授權上訴進行聆訊。 [76]自由的新聞是英國; [81]這,反過來,在許多評論員認為,顯著優於任何其他南美國家。 [82] [83]

[ 編輯 ] 軍事

一位英國駐軍駐福克蘭群島,這些島嶼也有一個公司規模的輕步兵 單位 (FIDF),完全由福克蘭群島政府 (2009年的40萬英鎊)。 [84]該單元的訓練下,借調安排的MOD -截至2010年 FIDF採用了皇家海軍陸戰隊 WO2作為一個永久的工作人員的教師和作為指揮官的主要其餘的力量是兼職的。它配備了四輪摩托車充氣艇路虎,並裝備有重型機槍,榴彈發射器和狙擊步槍。此外防務職責,力提供了一個山地救援服務,並培訓了皇家海軍在安裝的武裝威懾打擊非法捕魚活動。 [84] [85]

[ 編輯 ] 教育

5歲之間和16個島嶼上有大約380名兒童(不包括軍人家屬)。 [86]他們的教育,這是繼英國的制度,實行免費義務教育。小學教育是在赤柱有寄宿設施,在英國皇家空軍的Mount Pleasant的服務人員的子女,在一些農村居民點,支持遠程學習的赤柱營教育組。該群島唯一的中學是在赤柱和提供寄宿設施和12個科目的GCSE水平。 16後,合資格的學生可以研究在兩所大學在英國的A-水平或職業資格。政府支付的高年級學生接受高等教育,通常是在英國。 [87]

[ 編輯 ] 醫療

福克蘭群島政府衛生和社會服務部提供醫療和牙科治療的島嶼。 [88]愛德華七世國王紀念醫院(KEMH“),於1987年落成,是士丹利的唯一的一家醫院。這是由福克蘭群島政府和英國國防部聯合運行。訪問眼科醫生,婦科,耳鼻喉外科醫生,整形外科醫生,口腔外科醫生和精神病醫生從英國[89]所提供的專科醫療。需要緊急治療的病人都裝有提升到英國或到聖地亞哥智利 )。 [88] [90]

[ 編輯 ] 地理

福克蘭群島的地圖。

福克蘭群島位於南大西洋上的投影的巴塔哥尼亞海岸線的巴塔哥尼亞大陸架約310英里(500公里)東和最南端的火地島的東北部約280英里(450公里) 。在古老的地質年代,這個架子上,其中,大約400萬年前,從現在的非洲爆發,漸漸地向西相對於非洲的岡瓦納古陸的一部分。 [91]

福克蘭群島,土地總面積為4700平方英里(12,173平方公里)和一個海岸線估計為2200英里(3500公里), [92]包括兩個主要島嶼, 西福克蘭島東福克蘭島和大約776個較小的島嶼。兩個主要島嶼介於51°15'S,52°25'S57°40'W61°05'W [93]和140英里(220公里),從東到西87英里(140 [94]公里),從北到南。他們大量的聲音和峽灣縮進,有很多天然港灣。 [95]兩個主要島嶼分開的的福克蘭聲音 。, [96]

東福克蘭島 ,其中包含了資本士丹利和英國的軍事基地在Mount Pleasant的 ,是人口最多的兩個主要島嶼。 [97]

西福克蘭島和東福克蘭島北部的山脈, ​​,墊與古生代的岩石,其中,作為輔助力量與大陸漂移的結果是在120℃彼此。 [98]這些島嶼的最高點Usborne東福克蘭2313英尺(705米),而在西福克蘭的亞當山低,只有16英尺(5米)。 [97]

東福克蘭群島,Lafonia的半島由2.5英里(4公里)狹窄的地峽,連接到其餘的島嶼,南部的部分是不一樣的,其餘的島嶼。大多數Lafonia是一個年輕的中生代岩石的平原之上的,但在北部西部二疊紀岩石ECCA通在南非的部分。 [98] [99]

[ 編輯 ] 氣候

福克蘭群島之間的過渡區海上亞北極氣候( 柯本 CFC)極地 苔原氣候 (柯本的謊言ET)[100] ,這是非常接近的安第斯山脈 , ​​涼爽的南大西洋海洋與北方的巴塔哥尼亞當前影響和南極半島的陸地面積約680英里(1100公里)到南部[94]的島嶼每年一個狹窄的溫度範圍內。 1月平均最高氣溫約13°C(55°F),和7月的最高平均氣溫大約是4°C(39°F)。在赤柱的平均降雨量是604毫米(23.8英寸), [101]東福克蘭島作為一個整體534毫米(21.0)和西福克蘭作為一個整體555毫米(21.9英寸)的平坦地帶,並在特別是Lafonia ,年平均降雨量下降至400毫米或更低的顯著少雨的山區相比, [102] [103] 濕度和風速然而,不斷地高。雨雪頻繁的冬季,,雖然降雪是很少深。大風非常頻繁,特別是在冬季。 [104]

被稱為是非常多變的,它是不尋常的一個下午,面對四季的天氣條件。這樣做的原因是很多風方向,導致許多氣團混合的德雷克海峽 ,這常常是一個低壓力領域。

雖然作為遠南部位於英國北,像墨西哥灣暖流變暖的電流的情況下比同類西北歐地區的溫度是相當寒冷的。天氣預測是由英國氣象局的一個地方分支。 [105]

為斯坦利,福克蘭群島的氣候數據
一月 二月 損傷 四月 五月 六月 七月 八月 九月 十月 十一月 十二月
創紀錄的高°C(°F) 29
(84)
27
(81)
26
(79)
27
(81)
18
(64)
14
(57)
13
(55)
15
(59)
22
(72)
22
(72)
23
(73)
25
(77)
29
(84)
平均最高氣溫°C(°F) 15
(59)
15
(59)
13
(55)
9
(48)
6
(43)
5
(41)
5
(41)
5
(41)
7
(45)
10
(50)
13
(55)
14
(57)
9.8
(49.6)
平均最低氣溫°C(°F) 7
(45)
7
(45)
6
(43)
4
(39)
2
(36)
0
(32)
0
(32)
1
(34)
1
(34)
3
(37)
5
(41)
6
(43)
3.5
(38.3)
創歷史新低°C(°F) 0
(32)
0
(32)
-1
(30)
-3
(27)
-6
(21)
-10
(14)
-10
(14)
-8
(18)
-10
(14)
-6
(21)
-2
(28)
-2
(28)
-10
(14)
降水毫米(英寸) 56
(2.2)
54
(2.13)
53
(2.09)
48
(1.89)
45
(1.77)
42
(1.65)
42
(1.65)
28
(1.1)
32
(1.26)
30
(1.18)
29
(1.14)
50
(1.97)
509
(20.04)
平均降水日數 24 20 23 24 26 22 23 22 21 21 21 23 270
來源:Weather2 [106]

[ 編輯 ]生物 多樣性

生物地理 ,福克蘭群島被列為南極生態區的一部分[107]南極植物區系的王國[108]在南美的巴塔哥尼亞的植物群和動物群存在很強的聯繫。 [91]唯一的陸地哺乳動物在歐洲人到來種狐warrah ,發現兩個主要島嶼。 [99] [109]在19世紀中葉滅絕。 [97] [110] 14種海洋哺乳動物周邊海域頻繁。 [111]的大象印章,海狗,海獅所有品種的島嶼,最大的象海豹繁殖地擁有超過500只動物在[112] 227種鳥類已經看到在這些島嶼上, [91] 60已知的島嶼上繁殖。 [112]有兩個特有種鳥類,特有的亞種和14 。 [91]有五個島嶼上的企鵝品種選育,全球黑眉信天翁人口的60%以上在該地區的品種。 [111]

五企鵝走了草坡,頂風
企鵝在吉卜賽灣

有沒有原生的爬行動物兩棲類動物的島嶼。超過200種,昆蟲已被記錄,隨著43 蜘蛛和12種蠕蟲物種。只有13個陸地無脊椎動物確認為流行的 ,雖然在許多物種的信息缺乏,因此懷疑三分之二的物種的發現實際上是地方性的。由於海島生態環境,已經開發出許多昆蟲物種減少或消失的翅膀。大約有129個淡水無脊椎動物,其中大部分是輪蟲 ,但是,一些物種的鑑定仍存在爭議。 [91] 6種魚被發現在淡水地區,包括斑馬鱒魚 (aplochiton斑馬 )和福克蘭群島的小魚 (Galaxias斑[91]不同種類的磷蝦被發現在福克蘭水域,居住在北方的溫暖水域的龍蝦磷蝦[98]

有沒有鄉土樹種的群島,雖然兩個種灌木, fachine的 (Chiliotrichum彌散[113]本地箱被發現。 Other vegetation consists of grasses and ferns . [ 97 ] Around 363 species of vascular plants , 21 species of ferns and clubmosses and 278 species of flowering plants have been recorded on the islands. Of the vascular plants, 171 are believed to be native and 13 to be endemic. [ 91 ] Some bogs and fens exist and support some freshwater plant species, but these are not common on the islands. [ 98 ] Tussac grass , which averages 6.6 ft (2 m) in height but can reach up to 13 ft (4 m), is found within 300 m (1,000 ft) of the coast where it forms bands around larger islands. The dense canopies formed create an insulated micro-climate suitable for many birds and invertebrates. [ 98 ] The Pale Maiden ( Sisyrinchium jubatum ) is the islands' national flower. [ 112 ]

There is little long-term data on habitat changes, so the extent of human impact is unclear. [ 91 ] Vegetation such as tussac grass, fachine, and native box have been heavily impacted by introduced grazing animals. Many breeding birds similarly only live on offshore islands, where introduced animals such as cats and rats are not found. [ 98 ] Virtually the entire area of the islands is used as pasture for sheep . There is also an introduced reindeer population, which was brought to the islands in 2001 for commercial purposes. [ 114 ] Rats [ 99 ] and Grey foxes have been introduced and are having a detrimental impact on birds that nest on the shores, as are feral cats . 22 introduced plant species are thought to provide a significant threat to local flora. [ 91 ]

[ 編輯 ] 經濟

A squid trawler, and a cruise ship in Port William representing two trends in recent economic development.

The earliest economic activity on the islands, from 1770 onwards, was whaling and sealing . From the mid ninteenth century onwards, sheep farming played an important part in the island's economy. [ 115 ] In more recent years fishing , oil exploration and tourism have played a leading part in the economy of the islands.

Today, apart from defence, the islands are self sufficient with annual exports of $125 million and imports of $90 million (2004 estimate). [ 114 ] The Falkland Islands use the Falkland pound , which circulates interchangeably with the pound sterling and which is backed by the pound sterling on a one-for-one basis. [ 116 ] Falkland coins are produced in the United Kingdom; [ 117 ] coins are identical in size to the United Kingdom currency but with local designs on the reverse. The Falkland Islands also issue their own stamps . Both the coins and stamps are a source of revenue from overseas collectors. [ 116 ]

Farmland accounts for 1,123,985 ha (4,339.73 sq mi), more than 90% of the Falklands land area. [ 118 ] Since 1984, efforts to diversify the economy have made fishing the largest part of the economy and brought increasing income from tourism. [ 119 ] Sheep farming was formerly the main source of income for the islands and still plays an important part with high quality wool exports going to the UK. According to the Falklands Government Statistics there are over 500,000 sheep on the islands with roughly 60% on East Falkland and 40% on West Falkland. [ 118 ]

The government has operated a fishing zone policy since 1986 with the sale of fishing licences to foreign countries. These licences have recently raised only £ 12 to 15 million a year in revenue, as opposed to £20m to £25m annually during the 1990s. Locally registered fishing boats are also in operation. More than 75% of the annual catch of 200,000 tonnes (220,000 short tons) is squid . [ 120 ]

Map of the Falkland Islands economic zone in relation to its neighbours.

Tourism has grown rapidly. The islands have become a regular port of call for the growing market of cruise ships with more than 36,000 visitors in 2004. [ 121 ]

A 1995 agreement between the UK and Argentina had set the terms for exploitation of offshore resources including oil reserves [ 122 ] as geological surveys had shown there might be up to 60 billion barrels (9.5 billion cubic metres) of oil under the seabed surrounding the islands. [ 123 ] However, in 2007 Argentina unilaterally withdrew from the agreement; [ 124 ] Falklands Oil and Gas Limited then signed an agreement with BHP Billiton to investigate the potential exploitation of oil reserves. [ 125 ] Due to the difficult climatic conditions of the southern seas exploitation will be difficult, though economically viable; the continuing sovereignty dispute with Argentina is also hampering progress. [ 126 ]

In February 2010 exploratory drilling for oil was begun by Desire Petroleum , [ 127 ] but the results from the first test well were disappointing. [ 128 ] Two months later, on 6 May 2010, Rockhopper Exploration announced that "it may have struck oil". [ 129 ] Subsequent tests showed it to be a commercially viable find; an appraisal project was launched and on 14 September 2011 Rockhopper Exploration announced that plans were under way for oil production to commence in 2016, through the use of floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) technology. [ 130 ]

[ 編輯 ] 人口統計學

Christ Church Cathedral , Stanley, with an arch made of whale bone. One of the earliest economic activities on the islands was whaling.

The population of the Falkland Islands is primarily of British descent (about 70 percent of the population), mainly as a result of Scottish and Welsh immigration to the islands. [ 131 ] In the 2006 census, some Islanders identified themselves as of French , Gibraltarian , and Scandinavian descent. [ 132 ] Other minorities include those from Chile and Saint Helena , many of whom have become assimilated. [ 133 ] Among the few Argentines currently residing in the islands is Maria Strange, wife of the author and historian Ian Strange . [ 134 ]

Residents of the Falklands are often called " Kelpers " [ 135 ] or "Islanders". [ 136 ] The legal term for having the right of residence is "belonging to the islands". [ 76 ] From 1 January 1983, as provided in the British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act 1983 , the islanders have been full British citizens . [ 137 ]

A population decline leading up to the Falklands War has reversed, with the population bolstered by immigration from the British island of Saint Helena, and Chile [ 135 ] though figures for immigration are skewed by including children born to Falkland Islander women who for medical reasons travelled abroad for their confinement as being "born abroad". [ 132 ] Historical census figures show that the population rose from an estimate of 287 in 1851 to 2,272 in 1911. The population was 2,094 in 1921 and 2,392 in 1931, but it then declined to 1,813 in 1980. [ 132 ] However, the population recorded in the 2001 census was higher than at any previous point in history. [ 138 ] By 2006 the population had increased to 2,955 of whom 2,115 lived in Stanley and 477 in Mount Pleasant, 194 in the rest of East Falkland, 127 in West Falkland and 42 in the other islands. These figures exclude all military personnel and their families, but include 477 people who were present in the Falkland Islands in connection with the military garrison. [ 132 ] In 2012, the population of the Falkland Islands (excluding British Ministry of Defence personnel and families based at RAF Mount Pleasant , stood at 2,841, the drop being attributed to a decline in the number of contractors associated with the air base. A breakdown of the figures showed that Stanley had a population of 2121, Camp had a population of 351 and contractors at Mount Pleasant made up the remaining 278. [ 4 ]

The age distribution of the islands residents is skewed towards people of working age (20–60) – 65% as opposed to 21% aged below 20 and 14% aged above 60. Males outnumber females by 53% to 47% with the deviation being most prominent in the 20–60 age group. [ 132 ] In the 2006 census, 67.2% of the islanders identified themselves as being Christians , 31.5% either declined to answer or had no religious affiliation and the remaining 1.3% (39 individuals) identified themselves as adherents of other faiths. [ 132 ] The islands have three churches, one for each of the Church of England , Roman Catholic and United Free Church communities. [ 59 ]

[ 編輯 ] 基礎設施

[ 編輯 ] 媒體

The islands have two weekly newspapers – The Penguin News , funded by the Falklands Media Trust [ 139 ] and the Teaberry Express published by Falkland Islands News Network. [ 81 ]

Falkland Islands technical standards for radio and television are identical to those in the United Kingdom or, in the case of Medium Wave broadcasts, the Americas. There are approximately 1000 television sets and 1000 radio receivers on the islands. [ 81 ] Two terrestrial television channels are broadcast by the British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) while KTV Ltd. relay a number of satellite services such as BBC , CNN via cable to subscribers in Stanley. [ 140 ] Radio broadcasting is supported by seven FM radio stations and one AM radio station. The first broadcasting service, the Falkland Islands Broadcasting Service, established in 1929 used landlines connected to a speaker in people's homes. This was upgraded to wireless in 1942 and a 5 kW medium wave transmitter installed in 1954. VHF was introduced in 1999. In 2005 the service was privatised and renamed Falkland Islands Radio Service (FIRS). [ 141 ]

[ 編輯 ] 電話

The first telephones in the Falklands were installed by the Falkland Island Company in 1880, with lines to all settlements in Camp being installed by 1907. In 1911, Marconi built a telegraph office that permitted telegrams to be sent to Montevideo . In 1950, the fixed line telephone service to Camp was replaced by a radio service; [ 142 ] the 2006 census showed that of the 307 two-metre radio receivers in the islands, 129 were located in Camp. [ 132 ] In 1989, Cable and Wireless won the contract to provide the Island's national and international telephone services. [ 142 ] In 2006, a GSM 900 mobile network was installed, [ 143 ]

In 2006, broadband was successfully implemented in Stanley and Mount Pleasant Complex, and was rolled out across the islands in 2008/09. [ 142 ] The International Telecommunication Union figures for 2011 identified the Falkland Islands as having the highest proportion of internet users in the world – 96.38%. [ 144 ]

[ 編輯 ] 交通

Typical Falkland Islands road.

In 1982, the Falkland Islands had no roads outside Stanley, only tracks. [ 145 ] By 2007, the Falkland Islands had a road network of 488 miles (786 km) which in 2012 had been extended to 536 miles (862 km) linking to all occupied mainland settlements. [ 146 ] [ 147 ] Speed limits are 25 mph (40 km/h) in built-up areas and 40 mph (64 km/h) elsewhere. [ 148 ] As of 2006 , the Falkland Islands had 67 motor vehicles per 100 people, with 4x4 vehicles accounting for 66% of the total. [ 132 ]

The Falkland Islands have two airports with paved runways – the main international airport RAF Mount Pleasant , 43 kilometres (27 mi) west of Stanley. [ 149 ] opened in 1986 and the smaller Port Stanley Airport on the outskirts of Stanley, opened in 1979 following the 1971 Anglo-Argentine agreement regarding an air link between the countries. [ 150 ] Mount Pleasant is used for military purposes and for heavy aircraft that require long runways, whereas Stanley is used for internal flights and smaller aircraft.

The Royal Air Force operates flights from RAF Mount Pleasant to RAF Brize Norton in Oxfordshire, England, with a refuelling stop at RAF Ascension Island . RAF flights are on TriStars although charter aircraft are often used if the TriStars are required for operational flights. [ 151 ] Local military air support – moving of personnel, equipment and supplies around the islands is carried out under contract by British International (BRINTEL) which operates two Sikorsky S61N helicopters. The principal civilian air operator at Mount Pleasant is LAN Airlines which operates weekly flights to Santiago, Chile via Punta Arenas . [ 146 ]

The Dash-7 of the British Antarctic Survey at Stanley.

The main operator at Port Stanley Airport is the Falkland Islands Government Air Service (FIGAS) which operates Islander aircraft which can use the grass airstrips at most settlements. Flight schedules, which are broadcast on the radio every evening, are planned on a daily basis according to passenger needs. [ 152 ]

Private operators from Stanley include the British Antarctic Survey who operate an air link to the Rothera Research Station on the Antarctic Peninsula and also serve other British bases in the British Antarctic Territory using a de Havilland Canada Dash 7 .

[ 編輯 ] 參見

[ 編輯 ]

  1. ^ Joshua Project. "Ethnic People Groups of Falkland Islands" . Joshua Project . http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=FK . Retrieved 28 February 2010 .
  2. ^ a b Lisa Watson (1 September 2009). "British consul in Basra next Falkland Islands governor" . Retrieved 18 March 2011 .
  3. ^ Robertson, Janet (6 March 2012). "New Chief Executive for Falkland Islands Governmen" . Penguin Retrieved 6 March 2012 .
  4. ^ a b "Headline results of 2012 Falkland Islands Census released" . Falkland Islands Government. 10 September 2012年12月19日
  5. ^ 2002 estimate. "CIA World Factbook 2012" . cia.gov . https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fk.html . Retrieved 2013-01-04 .
  6. ^ "Falkland Islands will remain on summer time throughout 2011" . MercoPress . 31 March Retrieved 4 February 2012 .
  7. ^ Pepper, Peter J (March 2001). "Port Desire and the Discovery of the Falklands" . Falkland Islands Newsletter . http://www.falklands.info/history/histarticle19.html . Retrieved 6 March 2010 .
  8. ^ "Falklands" . Retrieved 15 March 2010 .
  9. ^ a b "Part 2 – Fort St. Louis and Port Egmont" . A Brief History of the Falkland Islands . Falkland Islands Information Portal . http://www.falklands.info/history/history2.html . Retrieved 17 August 2011 .
  10. ^ “國家名稱和代碼元素” 。 International Organization for Retrieved 17 August 2011 .
  11. ^ "Agreement of 14th July 1999" . Falklands.info . http://www.falklands.info/background/99agree.html . 7月23日
  12. ^ "PSYOP of the Falkland Islands War" . Psywar.org . http://www.psywar.org/falklands.php . 7月23日
  13. ^ "Who first owned the Falkland Islands?" . “衛報”。 2 February 2012 . http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/blog/2012/feb/02/who-first-owned-falkland-islands ? . Retrieved 11 February 2012 .
  14. ^ Goebel, 1971 , pp. xiv–xv
  15. ^ G. Hattersley-Smith (June 1983). "Fuegian Indians in the Falkland Islands" . Polar Record ( Cambridge University Press ) 21 (135): Retrieved 1 February 2012 .
  16. ^ "Culture of Falkland Islands – history, people, clothing, beliefs, food, life, immigrants, population, religion" . http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/Falkland-Islands.html . Retrieved 17 March 2011 .
  17. ^ Goebel, 1971 , pp. 45–46
  18. ^ "The Discovery of the Falkland Islands" . http://www.falklands.info/history/history1.html . Retrieved 28 March 2011 .
  19. ^ Goebel, 1971 , pp. 226
  20. ^ Goebel, 1971 , pp. 232,269
  21. ^ a b c "A brief history of the Falkland Islands Part 2 – Fort St. Louis and Port Egmont" . Falklands.info . http://www.falklands.info/history/history2.html .檢索2007年9月8日
  22. ^ "Falkland Islands Timeline: A chronology of events in the history of the Falkland Islands" . Falklands.info . http://www.falklands.info/history/timeline.html . 2011年8月25號
  23. ^ a b c Tatham, 2008 , pp. 308–309
  24. ^ a b Peter Pepper, Graham Pascoe (1 June 2008). "Luis Vernet" . In David Tatham. The Dictionary of Falklands Biography (Including South Georgia): From Discovery Up to 1981 . D. Tatham. pp. 540–546. ISBN 978-0-9558985-0-1 . http://books.google.com/books?id=0D0VNAAACAAJ . Retrieved 15 August 2011 .
  25. ^ Mary Cawkell (31 August 2001). The history of the Falkland Islands . Anthony Nelson.頁。 50. ISBN 978-0-904614-55-8 . http://books.google.com/books?id=YG8VAAAACAAJ . Retrieved 4 March 2012 . "On this visit he met Woodbine Parish who expressed great interest in his venture and asked Vernet to prepare a full report on the islands to submit to the British government. On his side Vernet expressed the wish that, in the event of the British returning to the islands, HMG would take his settlement under their protection."
  26. ^ The date of this picture is unknown, but the artist, Lt Lowcay, was the offical British resident in the islands from 1838 to 1839 (see "Part 33 - Louis Vernet: The Great Entrepreneur" . A Brief History of the Falkland Islands . Falklands.info . http://www.falklands.info/history/history3.html . Retrieved 28 November 2012 . ).
  27. ^ a b Peter Pepper, Graham Pascoe (1 June 2008). "Luis Vernet" . In David Tatham. The Dictionary of Falklands Biography (Including South Georgia): From Discovery Up to 1981 . D. Tatham. pp. 541–544. ISBN 978-0-9558985-0-1 . http://books.google.com/books?id=0D0VNAAACAAJ . Retrieved 15 August 2011 .
  28. ^ a b "A brief history of the Falkland Islands Part 3" . Falklands.info . http://www.falklands.info/history/history3.html . 2011年5月14號
  29. ^ "Silas Duncan and the Falklands' Incident" . USS Duncan Reunion Association. 2001 . http://www.ussduncan.org/silas_page13.htm . 2011年8月25號 。 "The letters show that the USS Lexington, under the command of Silas Duncan, visited the Falklands in December, 1831, to investigate complaints by American fishermen that a "band of pirates" was operating from the islands. After finding what he considered proof that at least four American fishing ships had been captured, plundered, and even outfitted for war, Duncan took seven prisoners aboard Lexington and charged them with piracy. The leaders of the prisoners was Louis Vernet, a German, and Matthew Brisbane, an Englishman both of Buenos Aries."
  30. ^ Tatham, 2008 , pp. 117
  31. ^ "Historical Dates" . Falkland Islands Government . http://www.falklands.gov.fk/Historical_Dates.html . Retrieved 20 December 2010 .
  32. ^ Edmundo Murray (1 November 2005). "The Irish in Falkland/Malvinas Islands" . Society for Irish Latin American Studies . http://www.irlandeses.org/fmi.htm . Retrieved 28 March 2012 .
  33. ^ Charles Darwin in the Falklands, 1833 (Extracts from Darwin's Diary)
  34. ^ "Darwin's Beagle Diary (1831–1836)" . The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online.頁。 304 . http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=EHBeagleDiary&viewtype=text&pageseq=304 . 7月23日
  35. ^ Lewis, Jason; Alison Inglis. "A Brief History of the Falkland Islands, Part 4 – The British Colonial Era" . http://www.falklands.info/history/history4.html . Retrieved 2 September 2011 . "In 1839 a British merchant adventurer, GT Whittington, formed the Falkland Islands Commercial Fishery and Agricultural Association and tried to put pressure on the British government to proceed with the colonisation of the Falkland Islands. He published a leaflet entitled 'The Falkland Islands' containing material acquired indirectly from Vernet, and then presented to the government a petition signed by owner a hundred London merchants, shipowners and traders demanding that a public meeting be held to discuss the future of the Falkland Islands. In April 1840 he wrote to the Colonial Secretary, Lord Russell, proposing that the islands be colonised by his Association. In May the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners decided that the Falkland Islands were suitable for colonisation."
  36. ^ Tatham, 2008 , pp. 382
  37. ^ Tatham, 2008 , pp. 510–511
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Coordinates : 51°41′S 59°10′W  /  51.683°S 59.167°W  / -51.683; -59.167